By James R. Privitera, M.D. and Alan Stang, M.A.
Unique Way to Test for Clotting
Platelet aggregation has long been shown to cause and/or to be associated with many of the major degenerative diseases. In over 25 years of examining patient's charts, we have never seen a report of status of platelet reactivity, even though more than 90% of all myocardial infarctions are caused by the formation of a thrombus at the site of an atherosclerotic lesion. Unstable angina results from the formation of platelet aggregation at these sites.
Over 90% of metastatic cancer are also associated with platelet aggregation.
Because of the extreme importance of determining the amount of clotting a patient has in his/her blood, we have used different test methods and have found the darkfield the fastest and best. The test is performed using a drop of blood on a television monitor, the technician explains the blood pattern, and Polaroid picture is given to the patient for examining at home.
Since heart disease is by far the biggest killer and 90% of strokes are also caused by platelet aggregation, one of our studies was limited to patients with circulatory complaints and platelet aggregation.
Forty-five patients with circulatory complaints who had a 2+ (an aggregation that is twice as large as a red cell) platelet aggregation were tested, using the darkfield microscope.
To confirm and verify the observed platelet aggregation, Betathromboglobulin studies were done. These showed 100% correlation. Betathromboglobulin is the most abundant platelet specific protein and has a molecular weight of 36,000. It is not interfered with by Warfarin (coumadin) as is frequently seen with darkfield. Frequently large platelet aggregations are seen in patients on Warfarin (coumadin).
"I believe dark field microscopy has great potential. This has been demonstrated by Dr. Privitera in his own practice for many years. I am glad that someone of Dr. Privitera's caliber has invested the time and effort into exploring darkfield microscopy's possible uses."
Robert C. Barton, Jr., M.D.
Emergency Medicine and Family Practice
Toluca Lake, California
Any stimulation of prostaglandin two (PGE2) promotes clotting. It is beyond the scope of this article to elaborate on this system which is of paramount importance in understanding clotting. Smoking, sugar, alcohol, caffeine, and deficiencies of at least niacin and magnesium can negatively affect functioning of this system.
A common condition associated with clotting is headache. In 1977, Drs. Deshmuch and Mayer received the Harold G. Wolff Award of the American Association for the Study of Headaches for identifying platelet aggregation (clotting) as a causative mechanism of migraine headaches. Now more than 15 years late, it seems that they and their findings are forgotten by their colleagues, as with other modalities such as chelation therapy, which also is anti-clotting. Clinically, we have found the majority of all headache sufferers have platelet aggregation: 39 out of 41-95%. They respond very well to the natural therapies.
Stress is another condition associated with platelet aggregation. Stress increases catecholamines, which cause platelets to stick together.
There is a correlation between stress and immunity, since stress causes clotting.
Thirty-one of these, or 70%, showed positive correlation with abnormal cholesterol/Hdl ratio.
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THE SECRET OF OXIDATION
OXIDIZED cholesterol causes arteriosclerosis. This has been known for more than 20 years. Since the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis has been elucidated in extreme detail, starting with platelet aggregation, therefore, oxidized cholesterol must cause platelet aggregation.
A recent report in the New England Journal of Medicine described an 88-year-old male who ate 25 eggs a day, only soft-boiled. His cholesterol did not change, and he showed no signs of arteriosclerosis. Instead of comparing 20 or more soft-boiled egg eaters to the same number of scrambled egg eaters, the publication concluded that he had a reduced absorption of cholesterol. Most nutrition-minded physicians disagree.
At the risk of unnecessary simplification, eating scrambled eggs would be like eating butter that has been left our for seven days or more. In the former case, oxygen and intense heat quickly oxidize unsaturated fats in egg yolk. In the latter, the same think occurs much more slowly.
We also did a study of 28 patients with angina. Twenty-seven of 96% of these patients had significant platelet aggregation (clotting).
An argument can be made for the platelet aggregometer to detect clotting in the blood, rather than the darkfield microscope. We used an aggregometer for years, but found it impractical, since so many substances such as Pethidine, Morphine, Septra, EDTA, Theophyllin, Wafarin (coumadin), Pontopon, Aspirin, and Heparin all interfere with the test, It is also cumbersome and time consuming. The patient cannot see his clotting on a TV monitor, as he can with the darkfield microscope.
Clots suppress the immune system by secreting platelet-derived growth factor (PPGF) and also promote cancer.
"If you are a professional athlete, Silent Clots will show you the difference between bad training and bad health. If you are just exercising, Silent Clots will improve your workouts, maximize your energy and protect you from harm. I refer to it often for advice on diet and supplements and it's a lot of fun to read!"
Silver Medal, Swimming, 1984 Olympics Games
Seven World Records
Eighteen American Records
DANGER FROM CLOTS
he August 1991 issue of Stroke magazine reported that infections commonly precede strokes and may trigger strokes by altering the body's blood clotting system. The infections, which occurred in 17 of 50 patients, ranged from mild upper respiratory infections to urinary tract infections and pneumonia. This fits with previous observations of more clotting in patients with infections.
Platelet aggregation (clotting) is probably the most common problem we see. Recent research shows it to be a very likely common final pathway, the biggest problem from a pathophysiological viewpoint.
Many natural substances treat platelet aggregation effectively. We have mainly used EPA. However, many others such as vitamin C, E, garlic oil (not the powder), magnesium, mucopolysaccharides, B6, bromelain enzymes, primrose oil fever few (herb), ginger, phosphatidyl cholline, and ginko biloba have been studied.
Wm. Kelley, M.D. et al. Textbook of Internal Medicine, 1988. "Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis," Chapter 33, p. 127.
Editorial, The Lancet, "Hyemostatic Abnormalities and malignant Disease," Feb. 8, 1986; p.303.
Robert J. Morin, M.D., Shi-Juang Peng, M.D., Ph.D., "The Role of Cholesterol Oxidation Products in the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis." Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, Vol.19, No. 4,1991, pp.225-237.
Fred Kern, Jr., M.D., "Normal Plasma Cholesterol in an 88 year old Man Who Eats 25 Eggs a Day." New England Journal of Medicine, March 28,1991; pp.896-899.
Betathromboglobulin (B.T.G.) RIA Kit, brochure p. 11, Specificity Study.
Rudolph, C.J., D.O., Ph.D. Et al, "An Observation of the Effect of EDTA Chelation and Supportive Multivitamin Trace Mineral Supplementation of Blood Platelet Volume: A Brief Communication." Journal of Advancement in Medicine, Vol. 3, No.3, Fall 1990.
Morganstern, E. and G. Stark, "Morphometric Analysis of Platelet ultra-Structure in Normal and Experimental Conditions." Platelets. 1975,pp. 37-42.
Gersuk, Geoffrey M. et al. Dept. of Micro. And Path., USC School of Medicine, LA, Ca., "Natural Immunity;" Nat. Immunity Cell Growth Regul. 5:283-293(1986).
Knapp, R. Howard, M.D., Ph.D. Et Al, "In Vivo Indexes of Platelet and Vascular Function during Fish Oil in patients with Atherolsclerosis, "New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 314, April 10, 1986;pp. 937-942.
Cordova, C., et al. " Influence of Ascorbic Acid on Platelet Aggregation in Vitro and in vivo." Atherosclerosis, Vol. 41, 1982;pp. 15-19.
Steiner, Mangfred, M.D., Ph.D., "Influence of Vitamin E on Platelet Function in Humans", Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Oct. 1991; 10(5) 466-473.